Skip to content

Top 20 Smallest Countries In Africa By Population (2024)

The smallest countries in Africa are just as important as the most populations; all people must be given respect and dignity, regardless of their position or population.

Nevertheless, with issues like food insecurity, climate change, and poverty lingering on in the continent, it is imperative to find out what countries are most at risk.

Small populations have often been linked to wealth; read to the end to find out if this applies to Africa as well.

Top 20 Smallest Countries In Africa By Population

 1. Seychelles  

Population: 99,768

Seychelles is Africa’s smallest country with a population of 99,768 but some estimates quote 95,000. This is a country in the Indian Ocean, and it is made up of about 115 islands. Despite that number of islands, the country is not very big. It measures just 459km2- which is not even as big as some towns in the mainland.

Seychelles has at least 6 different ethnicities, but the largest ethnic group is the Seychellois Creoles who are a mix-up between the whites and the African population. Despite its small population, the country has very good diversity including ethnic and religious diversity.

Seychelles is a self-sustaining economy; it is a very well planned and well managed society. This small country has had a turbulent political history, but it has managed to overcome those challenges.

Seychelles maintains its population through agriculture; sweet potatoes, vanilla, coconuts and cinnamon are some of its main produce. The country exports frozen fish, canned fish, copra, cinnamon and vanilla in large quantities.

2. São Tomé and Príncipe

Population: 228,950

Another island country; Sao Tome and Principe is located on the opposite side of the map from where Seychelles is located. Sao Tome and Principe is located on the western side of central Africa; about 200km off the coast of Gabon.

This small country is quite well managed; it is a developing economy with a medium human development index rating.

The country is great for agriculture because it has rich volcanic soil, and is located close to the equator where it gets unrestricted sunlight. Interestingly, the country’s major export is gas turbines, while cocoa beans, coconut oil, and pepper are also important.

3. Cape Verde            

Population: 570,239

Cape Verde is the most western point in Africa; it is off the coast of Mauritania and Senegal, and made up of 10 volcanic islands located in the Atlantic Ocean. Cape Verde is a small country; the land measures 4033 km2, but the land makes a small triangle the center of which constitutes important waterways.

This small country sustains itself with fishing; as mentioned above, the islands make a triangle which is an ideal enclosure for fish. The country exports fish; but in the frozen and processed forms, and also exports crustaceans and mollusks in large quantities.

The country has a developed tourism sector which along with the services sector keep the economy moving.

4. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic

Population: 633,212

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic which is also known as Western Sahara; is a partially recognized Arab state, which is fighting for independence from morocco. This state has already received recognition from several countries within the United Nations, and although it does not currently control most of its territory, it is working to assert its authority.

Western Sahara presently has a population of around 633,212 people, and they live in a land area which measures 266,000km2; although much of that land is desert.

5. Comoros     

Population: 914,472

Comoros is a small island country between Madagascar and the continental mainland; it is a country in east Africa. Comoros has a land area of 1,861km2. Interestingly this country is a member of the Arab league- it is the only such country in the southern hemisphere.

Comoros has a population of about 914,472, and its population is quite mono-ethnic with Comorians making up more than 97% of the population. Islam is the major religion, and there are 3 official languages.

Comoros is an agrarian economy, although its exports are mostly processed. Some of its exports include cloves, vanilla, and essential oils.

6. Djibouti      

Population: 1,022,219

Djibouti is a country on the horn of Africa; some of its neighbors include Ethiopia, Somalia, and Eritrea. The country has a coast facing the Gulf of Aden, and the red sea.

Djibouti is a very small country; it measures 23,200km2, and has a population of around 1 million people. The people are ethnically divided into Somalis and Afar; while Islam and Christianity are the two religions practiced in the country.

7. Eswatini      

Population: 1,188,479

Eswatini is a country in southern Africa; it is landlocked; its neighbors are Mozambique and South Africa. This beautiful land measures 17,364km2 which is one of the smallest countries in the world- besides the islands.

Eswatini is a kingdom; the king has absolute power. However, the people provide for themselves mainly through agriculture; raw and processed sugar, as well as perfumed oils are some of its biggest exports.

8. Mauritius

Population: 1,276,638

Mauritius is a country in east Africa; it is actually an island country located around 2000km off the coast of east Africa. This is another tiny island; the land measures about 2040km2. This land inhabits about 1.2 million people, and the people are made up of 4 different ethnic groups speaking at least 6 languages.

Mauritius has a very good and diversified economy; mining, agriculture, fishing and manufacturing of clothing materials all contribute to make this a very prosperous country.

9. Equatorial Guinea

Population: 1,518,007

Equatorial Guinea is a country in central Africa; it is actually on the western side of central Africa; and has an extensive coastline which meets the Atlantic Ocean. Some of its neighbors include Cameroon and Gabon. The country is a Spanish speaking country.

Equatorial Guinea has a land area of 28,050km2, which is home to its population of about 1.5 million people. The people are broken down into 5 major ethnic groups; Christianity and Islam are the major religions practiced in the country.

10. Guinea-Bissau

Population: 2,081,340

Guinea-Bissau is a country in West Africa; its neighbors include guinea and Senegal. Guinea Bissau measures 36,125; it is the only predominantly Muslim country where Portuguese is the official language.

Guinea Bissau has a population of about 2 million people; the population is broken down into 5 major ethnic groups; and Islam and traditional faiths are the two most practiced religions.

Despite its small stature, the economy is quite well diversified; fishing, agriculture, and mined minerals constitute its biggest exports.

The following is a more extensive list of the smallest countries in Africa by population.

Rank Country Population Location
1 Seychelles 99,768 East Africa
2 São Tomé and Príncipe 228,950 Central Africa
3 Cape Verde 570,239 West Africa
4 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 633,212 North Africa
5 Comoros 914,472 East Africa
6 Djibouti 1,022,219 East Africa
7 Eswatini 1,188,479 Southern Africa
8 Mauritius 1,276,638 East Africa
9 Equatorial Guinea 1,518,007 West Africa
10 Guinea-Bissau 2,081,340 West Africa
11 Lesotho 2,182,040 Southern Africa
12 Gabon 2,353,692 Central Africa
13 Botswana 2,466,321 Southern Africa
14 Gambia 2,584,004 West Africa
15 Namibia 2,651,478 Southern Africa
16 Eritrea 3,663,117 East Africa
17 Mauritania 4,949,486 Northwest Africa
18 Central African Republic 5,031,186 Central Africa
19 Liberia 5,347,243 West Africa
20 Republic of the Congo 5,849,868 Central Africa



Africa’s smallest countries by population are mostly island countries located in the Indian and Atlantic oceans, on the east and west sides of the continent respectively. While some of these small countries are relatively poor, others are surprisingly well developed in terms of economy, and the quality of life of the people.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *